Precision Prediction & Precision Medicine

Biomarkers of heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes

Biomarkers of heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes: establishment of a biobank and an integrated approach to clinical and metabolic phenotyping of individuals with established T1DM

In this project we are searching for biomarkers in 600 patients with established (>5 years) diabetes. We are investigating the inter-relation and patterns of expression in clinical, (auto)immune, metabolic, inflammatory and other parameters, and (potential) biomarkers. Blood and urine samples are collected annually (over 3 years) in standardized conditions and biobanked. In addition, 150 patients will undergo additional metabolic testing (such as mixed meal-tests).

As part of this project we aim to answer questions such as:


  • What is the frequency and course of insulin-production after onset (using high-sensitive C-peptide assays)? Does this relate to clinical parameters?
  • What are the patterns of expression of other glucose-related hormones, such as glucagon, and of inflammatory markers in these patients? Do these relate to clinical parameters?
  • What contributes to successful aging in these patients (i.e. living with diabetes without severe complications)?


This project is a strategic research agreement (SRA) with the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), and involves the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) as well as Diabeter.


Please click here for a more detailed description of the BIOMARKER study.

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